a) red, b) yellow, c) orange, d) green, e) blue, Thylakoid disks are stacked in groups called ______. The wavelengths of light most effective in driving photosynthesis are those in the _________. The dark reactions of photosynthesis (Calvin cycle) take place within the ____________. The final hydrogen acceptor in noncyclic photophosphorylation is _____. provide the electrons needed to reduce NADP. Choose from 500 different sets of biology photosynthesis light 1 plants flashcards on Quizlet. In a C4 plant, carbon dioxide is first combined with a compound called ________. a) RuBP, b) PEPA), c) citric acid, d) acetyl-CoA. Only 1 to 2 percent of the sun's energy that lands on a leaf is converted into carbohydrates. a) chemiosmotic theory, b) photosystem mechanism, c) process of photolysis, d) electron transfer system, e) cyclic pathway. The light-harvesting reactions use sunlight to produce the ATP and NADPH required by the Calvin cycle. ... What happens to the remaining G3P molecules in the last step of the dark reactions? (Ascorbate, carotene, and other antioxidants are able to neutralize reactive oxygen species. Eastern Michigan University. An important electron and hydrogen acceptor in noncyclic photophosphorylation is _____. The absorbed sunlight provides the energy that drives electrons through the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Rubisco is responsible for the addition of the carbon atoms needed for the formation of carbohydrates, but by itself, rubisco does not increase the amount of energy stored in the formed bonds. In cyclic electron transport, electrons from photosystem 1 are redirected from ferredoxin back into the electron transport chain. a) light-dependent reactions, b) chemosynthetic reactions, c) carbon dioxide fixation, d) Calvin-Benson cycle, e) C4 pathway. Organisms that derive their chemical energy either from the process of chemosynthesis or photosynthesis are classified as a) autotrophs, b) parasites, c) heterotrophs, d) saprophytes, e) mutualists. Specifically, it is located in the thylakoid membrane. The process takes place in two major steps. a) The C4 pathway is more common in tropical plants than in temperate-zone plants, b) The C3 pathway is more common in temperate-zone plants than in tropical plants, c) C4 plants are more efficient than C plants at fixing CO2 when the concentration of available CO2 is low and oxygen high, d) The C4 pathway requires two different light-driven events, whereas the C3 pathway requires only one, e) Some C4 plants are now very important crop plants in the Middle Wes. Carbon dioxide, water, and light are used to make glucose and oxygen. . Carbohydrates are synthesized from CO2 molecules during photosynthesis, yet have more energy stored in their chemical bonds than contained in the bonds of CO2 molecules. The C4 pathway involves ______. a) red, b) yellow, c) orange, d) green, e) blue, Carotenoid pigments reflect (do not absorb) which color of light? ATP and NADPH are the energy sources needed to synthesize carbohydrates using CO2 in a process called the Carbon Cycle. The "first step" in photosynthesis is the _____. Now that we have that out of the way, let’s look at the 4 main steps of photosynthesis: Step 1 The plant takes in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through the stomata on its leaves. a) corn, b) spinach, c) sugar cane, d) crabgrass. ), Describe how Photorespiration leads to a net loss of energy and carbon. a) reduction of NADP, b) phosphorylation of ADP, c) photolysis of water, d) oxidation of chlorophyll, e) reduction of chlorophyll. Ms_JMiller TEACHER. The indirect product of cyclic photophosphorylation is ________? The reactants of photosynthesis are water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide. Water is an ideal source of electrons for photosynthesis. Which of the following compounds is involved in both the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis? (Formation of starch during the day provides photosynthetic cells with a source of carbs they can use during the night). a) stroma, thylakoids, b) stroma, mitochondria, c) mitochondria, d) thylakoids, stroma. a) there is a one-way flow of electrons from photosystem I to photosystem II, b) ATP alone is produced, c) hydrogen ions accumulate in the thylakoid compartments, d)only electrons are transferred to hydrogen acceptors, e) water is not involved in any of the reactions. Products of the Calvin cycle, or dark reactions, include _____? Which one of the following is not required for photosynthesis to proceed? Hydrogen ion flow in the thylakoid compartments ______. STUDY. a) light-dependent reactions, b) chemosynthetic reactions, c) carbon dioxide fixation, d) Calvin-Benson cycle, e) C4 pathway. PGAL molecules are formed from the reaction of PGA molecules with ATP and NADPH. In plants, photosynthesis is used to convert light energy from sunlight into chemical energy (glucose). On land, photosynthesis occurs most readily in environments that are both moist and warm. Before rubisco can act as a carboxylase, RuBP and CO2 must diffuse into its active site. Four of the five answers listed below are processes associated with light-dependent reactions. Form structures that resemble flattened sacs, and these sacs are grouped into structures called grana. The resulting six-carbon compound is broken down into two three-carbon compounds, and the energy in ATP and NADPH is used to convert these molecules into G3P. a) water, b) carbon dioxide, c) ribulose bisphosphate, d) phosphoglyceraldehyde, e) phosphoglycerate, Four of the five answers listed below are participants in photosynthesis. a) ADP and ATP, b) ATP and P700, c) ATP and NADPH, d) ADP and NADP, e) P700 and P680. Three of the four answers listed below are C4 plants. An antenna complex is an assemblage of various molecules, including notably chlorophyll ones. The P700 chlorophyll will not use wave lengths of light greater than 700 nm, while the P680 chlorophyll will not use wave lengths of light greater than 680 nm. In photosynthetic prokaryotes, it is located in membranes within cytoplasm or, in some cases, directly in the plasma membrane. The final step that occurs during noncyclic photophosphorylation is ________. For chlorophyll molecules that have been extracted from chloroplasts in the lab, this absorbed light energy is rapidly released, allowing the electron to return to its initial "ground" energy state. ATP plays an important role in preparing 3-PGA for the addition of energy and electrons from NADPH. Describe why NADPH is the reducing agent in the Calvin cycle. Donation of an electron from the photosystem to an acceptor, Where in a plant cell is chlorophyll found? a) electronflow, b) splitting of water molecules, c) synthesis of ATP, d) transfer of electrons to carrier molecules, e) establishment of an H+ ion gradient. Compare cellular respiration and photosynthesis. ATP is required for the regeneration of RuBP, raising the Calvin cycle's total energy requirements to two molecules of NADPH and three molecules of ATP for each molecule of CO2 incorporated by rubisco. Introductory Biology I … A hole in the semiconductor sense of the word, a missing electron from the chemical-bond electrons. a) the splitting of CO2 during photosynthesis, b) cyclic photophosphorylation, c) noncyclic photophosphorylation, d) both cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation, e) the Calvin cycle. a) true, b) false. How the buildup of protons in thylakoid membranes occurs: First, oxidation of water releases protons and O2 into the lumen. a) thylakoid, b) stroma, c) lamella, d) mitochondrion, e) tracheid. It transfers electrons that allow carbohydrates to be synthesized from CO2. Photosynthesis is the biochemical pathway which converts the energy of light into the bonds of glucose molecules. Carbon dioxide is incorporated first into an unstable intermediate compound and then into phosphoglycerate. How is ATP formed during photosynthesis? High energy phosphate bonds are formed during which process? The waxy coating on the surface of a leaf _______ in the leaf. The cells in the mesophyll in a ________leaf are usually arranged in a ring around the bundle sheath. All but which condition must be present for light-independent reactions to occur? What are the three main steps of the Calvin cycle? The first step in the NADP-ME type C 4 pathway is the conversion of pyruvate (Pyr) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), by the enzyme Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). Th… https://lms.uconn.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-2536245-dt-content-rid-38351167_1/courses/M1188-BIOL-1108-001.020/Photosynthesis%282%29.pdf. e) water. a) plasma membrane of the cell, b) membranes of the mitochondria, c) membranes of the thylakoids, d) membranes surrounding the chloroplast, e) stroma of the chloroplast. a) true, b) false. Under the second step, the 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate molecules are reduced by gaining electrons. a) O2, b) NADP, c) ATP, d) PGAL, e) glucose. Plant cells produce one molecule of O2 _____. In the reaction centers during photophosphorylation, _______________. A) 2, b) 3, c) 6, d) 12, e) 15. How to write an argumentative essay thesis statement in an argument essay you will have to provide evidence without providing too much drama you’ll. Cyclic electron transport increases the production of ATP. Which process releases electrons to fill "holes" in chlorophyll in noncyclic photophosphorylation? These electrons reenter the photosynthetic ETC by plastoquinone. a) cyclic photophosphorylation, b) carbon dioxide, c) water, d) ATP, e) NADP. Three Main steps: (1) Carboxylation, in which CO2 is added to a 5-carbon molecule; (2) reduction, in which energy and electrons are transferred to the compounds formed in step 1; and (3) regeneration of the 5-carbon molecule needed for carboxylation. The reduction of 3-PGA involves two steps: (1) ATP donates a phosphate group to 3-PGA, and (2) NADPH tranders two electrons plus one proton (H+) to the phosphorylated compound, which releases one phosphate group. a) true, b) false. These can either be formed by the transfer of absorbed light energy from antenna chlorophyll directly to O2 or by the transfer of an electron, from O2-. In this step, the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (abbreviated rubisco ) adds one carbon to a five-carbon sugar called ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) during carbon fixation. a) the parenchyma cells of the roots, b) the xylem cells of the stem, c) the epidermal cells of the leaves, d) the mesophyll cells of the leaves. Photosynthesis is a biochemical process for building carbohydrates using energy from sunlight and carbon dioxide taken from the air. a) phosphoglycerate (PGA), b) ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), c) phosphoglyceraldebyde (PGAL), d) lucose, e) oxaloacetate. Sign in Register; Hide. Describe the photosystems and their importance. What two defenses do plant employ to avoid stresses that occur when the Calvin cycle cannot keep up with light harvesting. A) 400 nm, b) 500 nm, c) 600 nm, d) 700 nm. Corn arose in the tropics and therefore is a ___________ plant. a) O2, b) PGAL, c) ADP, d) NADP. a) phosphoglycerate (PGA), b) ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), c) phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), d) glucose, e) oxaloacetate. The result of O2 added instead of CO2 is one molecule with three carbon atoms and one molecule with only two carbon atoms. a) true, b) false. On land, where does photosynthesis most readily occur? Tropical rain forests, grasslands, and forests). With the increasing release of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels, the earth should see a/an _______ in plant growth. a) light-dependent reactions, b) chemosynthetic reactions, c) carbon dioxide fixation, d) Kreb's Cyclecycle, e) C4 pathway. Select the exception. Under conditions of high light intensity, intense heat, and dryness, a C4 plant would ____________. a) built into the thylakoid membrane, b) built into the outer membrane of the chloroplast, c) located in the interior of the thylakoid, d) located in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion, e) located in the stroma. Rubisco can use both CO2 and O2. Learn about photosynthesis step-by-step with this quick study guide. If photosynthesizing green algae are provided with CO2 synthesized with heavy oxygen ('80), later analysis will show that all but one of the following compounds produced by the algae contain the '80 label. In the first step, CO2 is added to a 5-carbon sugar called ribulose 1, aka RuBP. a) photons are packages of solar energy, b) the longer the wavelength of light, the more energy it has, c) chlorophyll absorbs energy from light, d) photons with different energy levels produce different colors, e) visible light is a very small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration, a) respiration is the exact reversal of the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis, b) Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, and respiration releases it, c) Photosynthesis takes place only in the light, and respiration takes place only in the dark, d) Photosynthesis occurs only in plants and respiration only in animals, e) ATP molecules are produced in photosynthesis and used up in respiration. The first step involves an antenna complex absorbing a photon. Chlorophyll reflects (does not absorb) which color of light? Has this changed? The consumption of O2 and release of CO2. Cyclic photophosphorylation ________. A) RuBP, b) FAD, c) oxaloacetate., d) ATP. The first step is known as carbon fixation because it takes in CO 2 from the atmosphere and "fixes" it into organic molecules that can be used by living things. 1st step of photosynthesis during which light energy is captured and used to synthesize ATP and NADPH light-independent reactions (aka Calvin cycle) 2nd step of photosynthesis during which CO2 is incorporated into a sugar molecule using ATP and NADPH produced during the light dep. a) cyclic photophosphorylation, b) photosystem 1, c) carotenoid pigments, d) noncyclic photo-phosphorylation, e) both a and b, but not c or d. The concept that concentration differences in H+ and electric gradients across a membrane are responsible for ATP formation is known as the ______. In the noncyclic pathways ________. A) corn, b) pine, c) sugarcane, d) crabgrass, e) all except b. Which one of the following statements concerning noncyclic photophosphorylation is false? a) reduction of NADP, b) phosphorylation of ADP, c) photolysis of water, d) oxidation of chlorophyll, e) reduction of chlorophyll. The cells that control the amount of water, C02 and 02 that enters and leaves the leaf are called _________. Select the exception. a) formation of phosphoglyceric acid, b) donation of an electron from the photosystem to an acceptor, c) fixation of carbon dioxide, d) breakdown of the thylakoid membrane, e) formation of phosphoglyceraldebyde. Select the exception. The first step in photosynthesis where the energy from light is used to split water, producing ATP & NADPH & releasing oxygen; produces oxygen (one of the by products of photosynthesis) Light Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle) The biochemical pathway used in photosynthesis to synthesize carbohydrates from CO2. The result is the conversion of light energy into a chemical form. how many of each did you make? This would leave ADP as a by-product. a) on the outer chloroplast membrane, b) inside the mitochondria, c) in the stroma,d) in the thylakoids, e) none of the above. a) respiration, b) excretion, c) photosynthesis. Chlorophyll molecules are bound by their tail region to integral membrane proteins in the thylakoid membrane. Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, and respiration releases it. What are the two products of photosynthesis? The most productive parts of the oceans are located in ______. In short the light reactions capture the light energy and utilize it to make high-energy molecules, which in turn are used by the Calvin-Benson Cycle to capture carbon dioxide and make the precursors of carbohydrates. a) chlorophyll, b) CO2, c) glucose, d) sunlight, e) ATP. Steps of Photosynthesis. Which one of the following would be least likely to be a limiting factor for photosynthesis? Oxygen is produced by which process? When light excites chlorophyll, the chlorophyll molecule _____. The carbon dioxide acceptor in the Calvin-Benson cycle is _______. Absorbs the energy and moves an electron to a higher energy state. The carbohydrates are used both as starting points for energy synthesis of other molecules and as means of storing energy that can be converted into ATP from cellular respiration. The oxygen released in photosynthesis comes from ______________. process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds. a) decrease, b) no effect, c) increase. If these accumulate in the cell, they would cause water to enter the cell by osmosis, which would cause damage to the cell. Chemiosmosis-protons accumulate in the thylakoid and a concentration gradient develops and protons begin to diffuse through the ATP synthase . (ATP is needed to meet each cell's energy requirements which is why these organisms are not technically autotrophs.). b) produce carbohydrate, c) provide the energy required for the dark reactions, d) use O2 in the production of ATP, e) include two of the above. Photosynthesis is the major pathway by which energy and carbon are incorporated into carbohydrates. Crash Course Biology 8 Photosynthesis Flashcards Quizlet from o.quizlet.com 2 photosynthesis video as you watch, consider the following: Carbon dioxide + water + solar energy → glucose + oxygen. light energy(photon) is converted into chemical energy. 60% of photosynthesis is carried out by terrestrial organisms, 40% takes place in the ocean. Consists of large, light absorbing "head" containing a magnesium atom at its center and a long hydrocarbon "tail". a) keeps carbon dioxide in, b) keeps oxygen in, c) lets oxygen in, d) lets carbon dioxide in, e) keeps water in. Learn vocabulary, terms and more with flashcards, games and other study tools. All of the following take place in both photosynthesis and respiration except ______. Four of the five answers listed below are autotrophic. a) NADP+, b) ADP, c) O2, d) H2O, e) none of the above. It produces oxygen and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P or GA3P), simple carbohydrate molecules that are high in energy and can subsequently be converted into glucose, sucrose, or other sugar molecules. a) a membranes surrounding the chloroplast, b) thylakoids of the chloroplast, c) cytoplasm outside the chloroplast, d) stroma of the chloroplast, e) vacuole. Learn. The process of photosynthesis occurs in two steps. Photolysis involves ________. a) photorespire, b) synthesize carbohydrate, c) fix carbon dioxide into PEP). The algae in the ocean consume about _________ of the carbon dioxide released into the airs. order of events in calvin cycle. The energy supplied by the first photosystem allows electrons to be pulled from water, and the energy supplied by the second photosystem step allows electrons to be transferred to NADP+. So to build carbohydrates using CO2 requires the input of energy, which comes from sunlight. which wave length would probably be green? a) by splitting carbon dioxide, b) during respiration, c) by splitting ribulose bisphosphate, d) by splitting two molecules of water, e) by breaking down glucose. The pH in the interior of the thylakoid is _________ than that in the stroma and thus more acid. Describe this. How does the buildup of protons in the thylakoid occur? A carbon-fixing system that precedes the Calvin-Benson cycle in some plants. (majority of photosynthetic organisms in ocean are unicellular, ½ carried out by single-celled marine eukaryotes, while other half is carried out by photosynthetic bacteria. thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts What are the two challenges to photosynthesis efficiency? Flashcards. Describe how photosynthesis is a redox reaction. Most carbon enters the web of life through _____________. The photon energizes an electron, and the electron leaves a hole behind. The light-independent reactions were discovered by ____. The oxygen in our atmosphere is a product of ______. Four of the five answers listed below are heterotrophs. When light energy is absorbed by a leaf, the first result will be ____? a) occurs between photosystems I and 11, b) is called the hydrogen transfer system, c) provides energy to produce ATP molecules, d) causes excitation of chlorophyll molecules, e) requires the intermediary action of acceptor molecules. a) light-dependent reactions, b) chemosynthetic reactions, c) carbon dioxide fixation, d) Calvin-Benson cycle, e) C4 pathway. photoevent. Start with the basics: Quick Review of the Key Concepts of Photosynthesis . Learn biology photosynthesis light 1 plants with free interactive flashcards. In photosynthesis the reduction of CO2 to carbohydrate requires that both energy currency and a strong reducing substance (hydrogen donor) be in ample supply. Step 1 Photosynthesis takes place through several steps which occur during two stages: the light phase and the dark phase. Photosynthesis is a complex process that can be divided into two or more stages, such light-dependent and light-independent reactions. Carries electrons from P2 to the cytochrome complex by diffusing through the membrane. The electron-transport molecules of photophosphorylation are ___________. water is not involved in any of the reactions. Created by. a) O2, ATP, b) PGAL, glucose, c) ADP, ATP, d) ATP, NADPH, e) NADH, PGAL. In biology a "limiting factor" is a condition or substance that, by its absence or short supply, limits the rate at which a biological process can proceed. a) mesophyll cells, b) palisade cells, c) guard cells. The carbon source for organisms that derive their energy from photosynthesis is ________. a) photosystem, b) grana, c) mitochondrion, d) chloroplast, e) thylakoid. In the first step, energy from light is stored in the bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate ( NADPH ). a, O2, b) chlorophyll, c) NADP, d) PGAL, e) CO2. a) red, b) orange, c) yellow, d) green, e) blue. Yields NADPH as well as ATP. Start studying Steps of Photosynthesis. Four of the five answers listed below are part of the light-independent reactions. Plant cells take in water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide in order to create energy. Challenge 1: If more light energy is absorbed than the calvin cycle can use, excess energy can damage the cell. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. . One of the three-carbon molecules of G3P leaves the cycle to become a part of a carbohydrate molecule. Start studying photosynthesis and cellular respiration test. a) C-1, b) C-2, c) C-3, d) C-4, e) C-5. (Consumes ATP). electron flow causes H+ ions to be transported into the thylakoid. Carries electrons from the cytochrome complex to P1 by diffusing through the thylakoid lumen. a) reduction of NADP, b) phosphorylation of ADP, c) photolysis of water, d) oxidation of chlorophyll, e) reduction of chlorophyll. Rubisco hooks up RuBP with carbon dioxide from the air, the first step in making a carbohydrate. A net energy drain: It results in the oxidation and loss, in the form of CO2, of carbon atoms that had previously been incorporated and reduced by the Calvin cycle, and second, it consumes ATP. Two different principal mechanisms of CO2 fixation have been found in green plants— the Calvin cycle (or C3 pathway) and the C4 pathway. 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